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Haas Cnc Lathe Tooling

February 25th, 2005

Haas Cnc Lathe Tooling




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The introduction to this module identifies the brands and models of control that may be seen in this training program. Based on the selection of the instructor, a student will receive instruction on any of the four most widely used brands, Fanuc, Haas, Mazak and Okuma. Within each brand, the student will see the models of control most commonly found in industry. The Fanuc models of 0, 16, 18, 21, and 30 series are grouped into the Fanuc selection. The Mazak T32, T Plus, Fusion 640 and Matrix; the Okuma OSP 5000 and OSP 7000 series as well as the U and E controls; and the older and newer Haas controls are grouped accordingly.

The module begins by identifying the basic operating principles of a CNC lathe. Next, the types of material typically machined on a lathe are covered. The mechanical components of the lathe are explained in the next section including chucks and collets, spindles, and the bar feeding cycle. The tailstock and its components and function are detailed. Because of the variety of turret styles or automatic tool handling mechanisms found on CNC lathes, several configurations are shown along with an explanation of how each operates. Driven or powered tooling is also introduced. Multi-turret lathes are shown as well.

Part programs are introduced as part of an explanation of the term CNC. The operating modes are revealed to show both manual and automatic control. Next, the module presents the basic components of the CNC control itself. Within each component, a discussion covers the typical variations found on machines including such topics as color or monochrome screens, panel configurations and so on. The organization of the screen displays into chapters and pages is covered next. The soft-key menu, as a tool to display various pages, is then highlighted. The Position, Program and Offset areas are briefly introduced as key portions of the displays. An example is provided to show how the stored information can be accessed using the soft keys and control panel buttons. The cursor and it control buttons are introduced. Cautions about tool sharpness and turret and spindle movements are emphasized.

During the control-specific sections of the module for Fanuc, Mazak, Haas and Okuma the variations found on each control type are explained to show how the menu and soft key areas are displayed as well as the selection of operating modes.

The Integrex / Nexus addendum shows how the turning and milling functions are performed at the main and sub spindle. The Integrex rotating tool head and tool changer are examined along with cutoff of bar fed lathes. The Matrix control is then introduced along with its QWERTY keyboard.

Module 2: The Coordinate Grid System [ Top ]
Scenes: Core 70

As the most fundamental part of the CNC lathe and its operation, the coordinate grid is covered in detail in this module. It begins with an explanation of the need for precise control of tool movements to create workpiece dimensions and how the grid achieves this. The typical three-axis grid, also referred to as the right-hand coordinate grid is explained and then refined to explain how only two axes are required for turning. The plane established by these two axes is then discussed.

The standards of EIA and ISO are introduced to define how the axes are applied to spindle rotation and tool movements of all CNC lathes. The concepts of “addresses” assigned and the plus and minus values created on either side of the origin are revealed. The intersection of X and Z axes establishment of coordinates is then examined. Next, the location of X zero as centerline of the spindle is highlighted along with a discussion of how the right hand can be used to detect the plus and minus directions of the grid.

Next, the inch and metric units of measure used within the grid, and the codes or parameters used to define the operational units are explained. The concept of initial-point and endpoint as it relates to the coordinates found in a program is discussed. The C axis of machining is introduced along with the application of live tooling with its coordinates in degrees.

Module 3: The Signs of Coordinates and Directions of Movement [ Top ]
Scenes: Core 51, Fanuc Zero 8, Haas 24, Mazak 17, Okuma 10, Integrex 19

Since many errors involve the signs of coordinates and the signs of machine movements, the next module covers these concepts in detail. The division of the grid into quadrants and the signs of each address within those quadrants is revealed. The location of program zero as determined by the programmer is essential to the locations of the quadrants and therefore the signs of the coordinates in the program. The location of X zero is defined and the two likely Z zero locations examined and their impact on the Z coordinate signs. Next, the trainee is cautioned to not confuse the signs of coordinates with the directions to movement of the turret. Several examples are used to clarify these concepts.

The signs of X axis coordinates don’t change on single turret lathes so the impact of two turret machines on coordinates is revealed. The use of more than one grid system in a lathe has always been a point of confusion for trainees. The use of multiple zero points, and the resulting grids they establish, are explained to overcome this problem. The fixed zero point from which all others are located is defined as Machine Zero or Home. Next, the Program or Work Zero point is defined and it relevance to the coordinates within a program. This is followed by the Relative Zero location and grid. Finally, the Distance-to-Go grid and its importance in connection with the previous discussion about start-point and end-point values with programmed blocks. Its importance in the checking of new programs is further highlighted.

In the control-specific portions of the module, the application of multiple grids as found on Fanuc, Haas, Mazak and Okuma models are explained accordingly. Because the Mazak Integrex coordinate grid changes based on the type of machining process being performed, turning or milling, these aspects are explained in detail.

Module 4: Controlling Turret Movements [ Top ]
Scenes: Core 43

Since the grid system has been established, the positioning of the turret within the grid can be covered. The module begins with an explanation of the way in which the computer controls the turret’s to create Indexing, Rapid and Feed movements. The conditions required for each, such as the Safe Index point are revealed. The use of unidirectional and bi-directional turret movements are discussed as well as the control panel manual buttons. The speed of turret movements are then broken down further into rapid traverse and feed rates.

The concerns about cycle time are examined. The need to move the turret at the highest possible speed while maintaining the required quality is covered as it relates to the motors, encoders, ball screws and ways. The process of moving the turret and the feedback of turret location provided by the encoders is outlined. The concept of Feed Rate is explained and the variations needed for the type of cut and the material being machined.

The lesson then defines the basic machining movements needed to create a finished workpiece including such items as rough and finish cuts. The concepts of Depth-of-Cut, Feed Rate, and Surface Speed are defined and their interrelationships examined.

About the Author

Space Needle toy made on a Haas CNC Lathe

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